Last Referendum In After the Brexit vote: Quo vadis, Scotland?
Referendums in Germany are an element of direct democracy. On the federal level only two This page was last edited on 11 June , at (UTC). Das Referendum über den Verbleib des Vereinigten Königreichs in der Europäischen Union würde „keine 30 Sekunden mehr im Amt bleiben“, falls er das Referendum verlöre (“ wouldn't last 30 seconds if he lost the referendum”). directly responsible for the fraudulent elections and referendum in Belarus on 17 October and those who are responsible for severe human rights violations. Many translated example sentences containing "referendum vote" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Jetzt muss Cameron das angekündigte Referendum über einen EU-Austritt abhalten. Und er muss sagen, wie die gewünschten Reformen in der EU.
Jetzt muss Cameron das angekündigte Referendum über einen EU-Austritt abhalten. Und er muss sagen, wie die gewünschten Reformen in der EU. Polling of how people say they would vote in another referendum still suggests – as it has done throughout the last two years – that the. membership as well as on previous EU treaties. French referendum on the. Maastricht Treaty, Danish referenda on its EU membership, the Single. European Act.
The AV referendum on the proposal to use the alternative vote system in parliamentary elections is the only UK-wide referendum that has been held on a domestic issue.
The referendum was held as a result of the Conservative — Liberal Democrat Coalition Agreement which was drawn up after the general election. The Government of the United Kingdom has also to date held eleven major referendums within the constituent countries of England , Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland on issues of devolution , sovereignty and independence ; the first such referendum was the Northern Ireland border poll and, as of , the most recent is the Scottish independence referendum.
There have also been numerous referendums held by local authorities on issues such as temperance and directly elected mayors.
Major referendums have been rare in the UK, and have only been held on major constitutional issues. Historically referendums within the United Kingdom were opposed on the supposition that they violate the principle of parliamentary sovereignty.
In May the then Prime Minister Winston Churchill suggested holding a referendum over the question of extending the life of his wartime Coalition until victory was won over Japan.
However, Deputy Prime Minister Clement Attlee refused, saying "I could not consent to the introduction into our national life of a device so alien to all our traditions as the referendum which has only too often been the instrument of Nazism and Fascism.
There are two types of referendum that have been held by the UK Government, pre-legislative held before proposed legislation is passed and post-legislative held after legislation is passed.
To date the previous three UK-wide referendums in , and were all pre-legislative. Referendums are not legally binding, so legally the Government can ignore the results; for example, even if the result of a pre-legislative referendum were a majority of "No" for a proposed law, Parliament could pass it anyway, because parliament is sovereign.
For any UK-wide referendum to be held legislation has to be passed by the UK Parliament for each vote to take place, as there is no pre-determined format or voting franchise for any such vote.
However, unlike a general election there is no legal requirement for HM Government not to take any official position in any such vote.
For example, in under the then Prime Minister Harold Wilson the government formally recommended a "Yes" vote to staying in the European Community and in the government formally recommended a "Remain" vote to stay in the European Union a decision which indirectly led to the resignation of David Cameron as Prime Minister following the decision to "Leave the European Union" by the British electorate.
In the referendum no official position was taken as the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government was split on the issue.
Legally, Parliament at any point in future could reverse legislation approved by referendum, because the concept of parliamentary sovereignty means no Parliament can prevent a future Parliament from amending or repealing legislation.
Finally, under the Local Government Act , there is a provision under which non-binding local referendums on any issue can be called by small groups of voters.
This power exists only for parish councils, and not larger authorities, and is commonly known as the "Parish Poll".
Six local voters may call a meeting, and if ten voters or a third of the meeting whichever is smaller agree, the council must carry out a referendum in 14—25 days.
The referendum is merely advisory , but if there is a substantial majority and the results are well-publicised, it may be influential.
The Labour Government of — held five referendums on devolution , four of which received a yes majority. Despite the number of referendums that was held during this period no UK-wide referendum was held.
One concerning the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was cancelled, given the French and Dutch rejections of the treaty.
Another, on whether the UK should adopt the euro , was never held. The Labour manifesto for the general election stated "We are committed to a referendum on the voting system for the House of Commons.
After the inconclusive General Election the Liberal Democrats and Conservatives formed a coalition. As part of the coalition agreement , both parties formally committed to holding a referendum on changes to the electoral system.
The referendum was held on 5 May and was defeated. Since the Government of Wales Act became law, there can be referendums in Wales asking the people whether the National Assembly for Wales should be given greater law-making powers.
The Scottish Government held a referendum on Scottish independence on 18 September It attracted a turnout of The majority In March the Scottish Parliament authorised the Scottish Government to seek to hold a proposed second Scottish independence referendum.
The Conservative Party announced in that they planned to hold a referendum on whether Britain should remain in the European Union following a renegotiation of powers between the UK and EU , in Following the United Kingdom general election the Prime Minister , David Cameron committed the new Conservative government to holding the referendum.
It took place on 23 June There was no independent public body to regulate referendums within the United Kingdom until the Labour government led by Tony Blair in set out a framework for the running of all future referendums when the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act or PPERA was passed, creating and giving the Electoral Commission responsibility for running all elections and such future referendums.
The act also permitted the appointment of a "chief counting officer" CCO to oversee all future UK-wide referendums which would be held by the chairperson of the Electoral Commission.
Separate legislation i. In the following is a list of legislation which has been passed by the UK Parliament to enable the holding of the following UK-wide referendums.
To date only three referendums have been held which have covered the whole of the United Kingdom. The following is a description of each of the three national referendums.
All of the major political parties and mainstream press supported continuing membership of the EC. However, there were significant splits within the ruling Labour party, the membership of which had voted in favour of withdrawal at a one-day party conference on 26 April Since the cabinet was split between strongly pro-European and strongly anti-European ministers, Harold Wilson suspended the constitutional convention of Cabinet collective responsibility and allowed ministers to publicly campaign on either side.
Seven of the twenty-three members of the cabinet opposed EC membership and the party was formally neutral on the issue.
The two campaign groups in the referendum were "Britain in Europe" advocating a yes vote and "National Referendum Campaign" advocating a no vote.
In line with the outcome of the vote, the United Kingdom remained a member of the European Communities which would later become the European Union.
The alternative vote referendum, as part of the Conservative — Liberal Democrat Coalition Agreement drawn up after the general election , was a nationwide vote held on Thursday 5 May the same date as local elections in many areas to choose the method of electing MPs at subsequent general elections.
The referendum concerned whether to replace the present " first-past-the-post " system with the " alternative vote " AV method.
The voters were asked to vote yes or no on the question "At present, the UK uses the "first past the post" system to elect MPs to the House of Commons.
Should the "alternative vote" system be used instead? It was the first nationwide referendum to be held for some thirty six years and was legislated for under the provisions of the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act and the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act and is to date the first and only UK-wide referendum to be held on a domestic issue.
On Thursday 23 June the United Kingdom voted for the second time in 41 years on its membership to what is now known as the European Union EU with the overseas territory Gibraltar also voting on the issue for the very first time.
The referendum was called after Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron made a manifesto commitment in the United Kingdom general election to undertake a renegotiation of the UK's membership to the European Union which would be followed by a in-out referendum.
All of the major political parties were in favour of remaining an EU member, except for a split within the Conservative Party.
The cabinet was split between pro-EU and anti-EU ministers, and Cameron suspended the constitutional convention of Cabinet collective responsibility , allowing ministers to publicly campaign on either side.
Seven of the 23 members of the Cabinet opposed continued EU membership. The referendum was legislated for under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act , which legally required HM Government to hold the referendum no later than 31 December and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act Of the voting areas, returned majority votes in favour of "Leave" whereas returned majority votes in favour of "Remain" which included every Scottish council area and all but five of the London boroughs.
The vote revealed divisions among the constituent nations of the United Kingdom, with England and Wales voting to leave, but Scotland and Northern Ireland voting to remain.
It was the first time a UK-wide referendum result had gone against the preferred choice of HM Government who had officially recommended a "Remain" vote and it led to a period of political turmoil.
As a direct consequence of losing the referendum, David Cameron announced his resignation as Prime Minister on the morning after the vote.
He left office three weeks later on 13 July, and was succeeded by Theresa May who later resigned in due to the issue remaining unresolved. After the vote there was frequent public discussion as to whether the result of the referendum was advisory or mandatory, but the High Court stated on 3 November that, in the absence of specific provision in the enabling legislation and in this case there was none , "a referendum on any topic can only be advisory for the lawmakers in Parliament".
Since there have been eleven other referendums held by the Government of the United Kingdom within the constituent countries related to the issues of sovereignty, devolution and independence in Northern Ireland , Scotland and Wales and in parts of England in the North East and London.
Referendums have been held in local areas in England, Wales and Scotland since These have covered issues such as local government administration, transport, prohibition , and other local questions.
The areas covered have generally corresponded to local authority areas, civil parishes, or wards , with all local government electors of the relevant area being eligible to vote.
Principal authorities in Great Britain have the ability to hold an advisory referendum on any issue relating to its services, financial provisions, and other matters that are relevant to the area.
A local advisory referendum is not required to follow the legislation governing the conduct of other referendums and elections in the UK.
The local authority can choose how to conduct a local referendum, and may choose to hold the vote solely by post , instead of using polling stations.
The City of Edinburgh Council held a postal-ballot referendum in February over whether voters supported the Council's proposed transport strategy.
These plans included a congestion charge which would have required motorists to pay a fee to enter the city at certain times of the day.
The result was announced on 22 February and the people of Edinburgh had rejected the proposals. Strathclyde Regional Council held a referendum in on the plans of the Conservative UK government to privatise water services within Scotland.
The government planned to sell the three recently established water authorities in Scotland, created under the Local Government etc.
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Asset sales referendum. New Zealand flag , first stage. New Zealand flag , second stage. Legalizing the sale, use, possession and production of cannabis.
Allowing voluntary euthanasia on certain conditions. Should the inhumane practice of battery egg production be phased out within five years from this referendum?
Should the production of eggs from battery hens be prohibited within five years of the referendum? Christian Heritage Party.
Should a Judge sentencing a person convicted of murder to life imprisonment be empowered to order that the person be imprisoned for his or her natural life and not be eligible for parole?
Should the size of Parliament be reduced from Members of Parliament to by reducing the number of "list" MPs from 55 seats to 35 seats?
Should the size of Parliament be reduced from Members of Parliament to by reducing the number elected from the party list?
All New Zealanders should have access to a non-profit public health service which is fully government funded and without user charges.
All new Zealanders should have access to non-profit education service that is fully government funded and without user charges, from pre-school to tertiary level.
The central goals of government economic policy should be full employment at liveable wages and, for those not in the paid workforce, an income based on what it actually costs to live.
New Zealand's military budget should be reduced to half its level by the year and the savings allocated to health, education, employment and conservation.
Any increase in New Zealand's electricity demand should be met from energy conservation and from sources that are environmentally sustainable, and do not produce carbon dioxide CO2.
Should there be a legally enforceable requirement that political parties observe their constitution and their manifesto promises?
Should the number of professional fire fighters employed full-time in the New Zealand Fire Service be reduced below the number employed on 1 January ?
Petition successful—presented to House on 30 May ; select committee report on 22 June ; referendum held on 2 December Should all New Zealanders have access to public health services, which are fully government funded, and without user charges?
Should all New Zealanders have access to comprehensive health services, which are fully government funded, and without user charges?
Should all New Zealanders have access to public education services, from early childhood to tertiary level, which are fully government funded and without user charges?
Should full employment with wages and conditions that are fair and equitable be the central goal of government economic policy?
Should full employment with wages and conditions that are fair and equitable be the primary goal of government economic policy?
Should all New Zealanders on income support and benefits get an income based on what it actually costs to live? Should increases in New Zealand's electricity demand be met from energy conservation and from the use of resources that are environmentally sustainable?
Should increases in New Zealand's electricity demand be met from energy conservation and from the use of sources that are environmentally sustainable?
One New Zealand Foundation. Should the laws of New Zealand apply equally to all New Zealanders irrespective of ethnic origin?
Do you agree that the laws of New Zealand should not discriminate against or give preference to citizens or permanent residents of New Zealand on the basis of their ethnic origins?
Should people aged 18 years and over who are terminally or incurably ill be permitted to have their lives ended if they request this, in a humane manner and in accordance with procedures to be established?
Should the Forestry Corporation's plantation forests, mills, and rights in perpetuity to , hectares of Crown land, remain in New Zealand public ownership?
Should the forestry licenses to , hectares of Crown forest land which are currently held by the Forestry Corporation of New Zealand Limited remain in state ownership subject to the determination of any Treaty of Waitangi claims?
Should there be a law passed banning any further destruction of the native forests of Aotearoa to preserve the last remnants of our national heritage pursuant to the Treaty of Waitangi?
Should all tree felling and clearing on any indigenous land except in plantation forests and already protected conservation areas be prohibited, unless such tree felling or cleaning is in accordance with Maori customary use?
Should the Treaty of Waitangi, being an outdated document, be set aside and replaced with a national constitution which guarantees the equal rights of all New Zealanders without favour or discrimination?
Should there be a Written Constitution, taking precedence of the Treaty of Waitangi and all other sources of law, which guarantees the right of all people without favour or discrimination?
Should the size of Parliament be reduced from members of Parliament to 99 members of Parliament by reducing the number elected from party lists?
Petition successful—presented to House on 17 February ; referendum held on 27 November That should there be an urgent reform of our Justice system to introduce restorative justice which seeks to place greater emphasis on the needs of victims and includes hard labour for all serious violent offences?
Should there be a reform of our justice system placing greater emphasis on the needs of the victims, providing restitution and compensation for them and imposing minimum sentences and hard labour for all serious violent offences?
Petition successful—presented to House on 13 July ; referendum held on 27 November Cancer Society of New Zealand.
Should the method of election be termination of the political party system with the election for the constituency candidate as representative by single transferable vote?
Should members of Parliament be elected by single transferable vote STV with constituency-based, multi-member electorates?
Should the Government stop any forced school closures until there have been full and transparent guidelines and procedures adapted by Parliament?
Should there be no further compulsory school closures until comprehensive criteria have been established by law for the Minister of Education to follow when deciding to close a school?
Should government let New Zealanders have democracy by referendum where any individual or group can submit opinions which get numbered so we can list what we agree with and list what we disagree with, then the results are sent to four independent committees who create four separate laws and we vote for the most suitable one?
Should New Zealand adapt direct democracy by binding referendum whereby ideas for laws should be submitted and voted upon as of right by the public and, according to the result, submissions collected from the public and then assessed by opinion poll, resulting un draft law alternatives being prepared by independent groups, from which one opinion would be chosen by majority vote by the public; the resulting legislation to be binding?
Should the Shared Parenting Bill introduced by Dr Muriel Newman which creates a presumption that parents who are separated or divorced will have equal rights to custody of their children be passed by Parliament?
In the run-up to the referendum the prime minister announced that the government had decided to recommend a "yes" vote. But it emerged that the cabinet had split, with seven of its 23 members seeking withdrawal.
In billionaire businessman Sir James Goldsmith, who was against the Maastricht Treaty, set up the Referendum Party to campaign for a referendum on the European Union.
In the state of the European Union reached a critical point in its history after referenda in France and the Netherlands saw voters reject the latest EU constitution.